A keloid is a hypertrophied, fibrous and benign scar that occurs for different reasons during the process of wound healing. For a keloid to be formed, it is necessary to have a wound that is undergoing a healing process.
This injury can be caused by acne, infection, surgery, or a cut that needs to close. Complications occur mainly in people with an inherited genetic tendency to form keloid scars.
A keloid initiates when the skin or wound secretes excess substances called "growth factors". This is what causes the growth of the scar. At the same time, the connective tissue that is under the epidermis starts to reproduce itself, in order to close the wound.
In a normal person, the skin tissue covers only the wound, without excess, but a keloid indicates that there is an overproduction of the fibrous tissue. Therefore it begins to lift and overlap the skin to create a fibrous, hard, unsightly and very painful tumor when it is growing.
The keloid must be distinguished from a hypertrophic scar, which are less thick and deformed. These usually originate, for example, when the wound was caused by a scratch with a wire, or the patient had a reaction to the stitching of a wound, or the edges of the wound did not join properly.
Meanwhile, a keloid is a kind of tumor, big, red, that hurts when formed, and consequently, it takes up the color of the skin. It is never pre-cancerous, but it is unattractive and it is absolutely contraindicated its removal by surgical means.
What originates them?
Keloid scars occur as a consequence of damages of the skin such as surgical incisions, traumatic wounds, vaccination sites, burns, chickenpox, acne and sometimes scrapes (minor lacerations).
Most keloids will flatten and become less noticeable over the years and may cause irritation due to rubbing against clothing or other forms of friction. Extensive keloids may limit mobility, besides cosmetic changes and modify the physical appearance.